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Article "The Profits$ of Doom" 14 May 2005
Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement [Aus-USA-FTA] Jun 2004

This goes back to 1066 when William of Normandy (France) invaded England and won the Battle 
of Hastings.  

William I (1066-1089) brought many Jews from Rouen to document the assets of the conquered 
English in the Doomsday Book. 

The Doomsday Book formed the basis of the first Taxation Scheme and led to the building of 
the Castles and Churches around England to store the taxes collected. 

The Jews lived under special protection of the King and were the subjects of the King and
not the local Lords of the Manors.
The Jews were instrumental in forming the Freemasons, so called because they were free to 
travel, unlike the rest of the population who were corralled in the Shire Boundaries by 
the Shire Reeves.   

The Shire Reeves or Sheriffs policed the boundaries of the Shires to prevent the indentured 
population from travelling. 

The Freemasons established their Lodges with the rituals of revealing their identity to 
receive funds for travel warrants so that they did not have to carry money while travelling. 
An expedient precaution from 1066 - 1850 in the UK, 1788 - 1900 in Australia and until the  
event of Travelers Cheques and Credit Cards in recent times in other Countries. 

When a Freemason arrived at the place to build a Church, Castle, Town Hall, fine House etc 
he would find a welcome, company, food and funds at the Lodge. 

The Jews were the only peole who could be licensed money-lender for a profit as the taking 
of interest was forbidden to Christians by the Church. Ref the Starra P 5

Loans were required by the Lords of the Manor to build the houses.  These loans and were made 
on the security of land.  This loan by the Jewish Moneylenders was recorded as a Starra and 
were effectively the first mortgage transactions  
ref the Starra FA LINCOLN . The Starra P 50

ref Blackstone 
Starr or starra. The old term for contract or obligation among the Jews, being a corruption 
from the Hebrew word "shetar", a covenant, ...  & Blackstone conjectures that the room in 
which the chests were kept was thence called the "Star-Chamber".

Many of these Starra were destroyed in mob violence against the Jews often agitated by the 
Norman {French} Lords of the Manor. 

In 1174 the Archae were set up by agreement with the King so that the Starra were stored in 
Churches and Castles 

Thus after 1174 it became "profitless to destroy the contracts of the Jews since a 
counterpart remained in the King's care" ref The Starra P140 - Influence of Jews of the Law

In 1189 Richard I (Richard the Lionheart - 1089-1099) acceded to the Throne of England. 
Richard established the Exchequer of the Jews to raise funds for the Crusades and more 
important to pay for his release from imprisonment by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI 

Richard spent all but 6 months of his 10 year reign away from  England leaving the care of 
running the Country to his brother John. 

[****2006 The very informative book "Blondel's Song" by David BOYLE provides a very detailed
and fascinating account of the Capture, Imprisonment and Ransom of Richard the Lionheart for
25% of the entire wealth of the UK in 1194 explains why the Jews were so influencial on
the English Taxation System****]  

It was King John's (1199-1218) excesses that led to the writing and signing of "The Magna 
Carta - The Articles of the Barons" at Runnymede in 1215. 

The Magna Carta had 63 Articles and was signed by 25 Barons. 

Magna Carta stressed three points 

1	The Church was free to make ecclesiastic appointments 

2	Excess taxation only by consent of King's feudal tenants 

3	No freeman be punished except within context common law 

The translation of Magna Carta can be viewed on 

The Articles that refer specifically to the Jews are 

* (10) If anyone who has borrowed a sum of money from Jews dies before the debt has been 
repaid, his heir shall pay no interest on the debt for so long as he remains under age, 
irrespective of whom he  holds his lands. If such a debt falls into the hands of the Crown, 
it will take nothing except the principal sum specified in the bond. 

* (11) If a man dies owing money to Jews, his wife may have her dower and pay nothing towards 
the debt from it. If he leaves children that are under age, their needs may also be provided 
for on a scale appropriate to the size of his holding of lands. The debt is to be paid out of 
the residue, reserving the service due to his feudal lords. Debts owed to persons other than 
Jews are to be dealt with similarly. " 

Edward I {Edward Longshanks of Braveheart fame} (1272-1307)  established the principle of 
Primogeniture ie - the 1st son inherits all the assets of the father and land is the basis of 

In Jewish History, Edward I banned usury in 1290 which resulted in many Jews leaving England 
and moving to Spain, Portugal, France and Holland 

In 1362, nearly 300 years after the Battle of Hastings, English replaced French as the 
national language during the reign of Edward III (1327-1377)  

In 1536 Henry VIII established the Church of England as part of the Protestant religion.  
The Church and the nobles formed part of the Parliament which advised the King.  Henry VIII 
resided at Hampton Court. 


Meanwhile the Jews who had left England were instrumental in the search for Trade 
opportunities by the Dutch, French, Portuguese and Spanish.   

The Portuguese Jews were very influential on Henry the Navigator to establish the School of 
Navigation in Sagres Portugal around 1425 
ref Three Centuries Anglo-Jewish History P 30 - The first 50 years.

The influence of the Jews is that the Hebrew teachings and study of the Torah provided mental
diligence that had proved over the centuries the importance of maintaining written records.  

The School of Navigation taught the Ships pilots how to make maps, record the navigation 
records and to use instruments such as the quadrant.   

It was the Catalan Jew from Majorca, Jehuda Cresques, son of the cartographer Abraham Cresques, 
was brought to Sagres to supervise the collation of geographic facts brought back by Henry's 
explorers, who were encouraged and later required to keep detailed logs of their voyages. 

Muslims and Arabs, Italians from Genoa and Venice, Germans and Scandinavians came to Sagres. 

This community developed navigational instruments and such as the quadrant, and new 
mathematical tables to aid in determining latitude. 

The Pilots of these ships had to complete a record for each voyage with precise detailed 
records.  These records had to lodged at the School of Navigation when each ship returned. 

Although Henry the Navigator died in 1460 the School of Navigation provided the students who 
discovered the World including: 

	1488	Bartolomeu DIAS - rounded Cape of Good Hope 

	1492	Christopher COLOMBUS - discovers North America 

	1498	Vasco DE GAMAS - India by sea via Cape of Good Hope 

	1500	Pedro Alvares CABRAL - discovers Brazil South America 

	1519	Ferdinand MAGELLAN - round World voyage 1519-1522 

Thus it was Henry the Navigator's school at Sagres that laid the foundations for International

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